Scientific Reasoning and Critical Thinking
Course Identification
 Subject Code: Philosophy 11
 Course Title: Scientific Reasoning and Critical Thinking
 Course Description:
This course is specifically an outlined study of the basic principles of philosophy and its branches. It also covers an introduction to formal logic to develop the students skills in forming clear and systematic though, conducting inquiries and carrying our abstract and critical thinking (CSU General Catalogue, Revised 20082009)
 Number of Units: 3
 Number of Hours: 54
 Course Requirements:
Quizzes – – – 30%
Class Standing – – – 20%
Recitation – 5%
Assignments – 5%
Project – 10%
Periodic Test – – – 50%
Total – – – 100%
 Course Objectives:
At the end of the semester, the students must be able to:
 Distinguish a good argument from a bad argument.
 Understand the central ideas and topics studied in Traditional and Symbolic Logic
 Construct their own arguments, in traditional language and in symbolic language.
 Develop philosophical and critical thinking.
Course Content
PRELIMS: INTRODUCTION 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. BASIC CONCEPTS
 II. LOGIC & LANGUAGE
 III. STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS

 1. To orient the students with the basics of concepts, such as:
 Meaning of Philosophy
 Branches of Philosophy
 Definition of Logic
 Core of Logic
 Types of Logic
 Basic Technical Terms
 2. To elaborate on the idea of Logic as an Organon towards truth
 1. To distinguish, through explanation and examples, the forms and functions of language.
 2. To discuss the nature of emotive words
 3. To discuss Disagreements & their types
 1. To identify and understand the parts of an argument
 2. To diagram an argument
 3. To distinguish an argument from a nonargument
 4. To distinguish, through explanation and examples, a deductive argument from an inductive argument
 5. To discuss the concepts of Truth, Validity, and Soundness

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 Preliminary Examination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

6 days
(12 hrs) 
Course Content
MIDTERMS:
ARISTOTELIAN CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. CATEGORICAL TERM
 II. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION
 III. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
 IV. FORMS OF IMMEDIATE INFERENCE
 V. OTHER FORMS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE
 VI. Inductive Arguments & the Scientific Method

 1. To define and understand the categorical term
 2. To discuss the “comprehension” and “extension” of a term
 3. To analyze a term according to its Quantity & Distribution
 4. Identify the kinds of terms (Univocal, Equivocal, & Analogous)
 1. To explain the Categorical Proposition & its standard forms
 2. To analyze a Categorical Proposition according to its quality, quantity, & distribution
 3. To analyze a Categorical Proposition using the Venn Diagram
 1. To understand the Categorical Syllogism through the syllogistic rules
 2. To analyze the validity of the “logical form” of a Categorical Syllogism through its “mood” and “figure”
 3. To analyze a Categorical Syllogism using a Venn Diagram
 1. To identify and distinguish, through explanation and examples, an immediate from a mediate inference.
 2. To discuss the Traditional Square of Opposition
 3. To identify and understand the different forms of “Eduction” (conversion, obversion, contraposition, & inversion)
 1. To discuss and cite examples of the different types of Hypothetical Syllogism
 2. To indentify and explain the special mediate inference, such as Enthymemes, Epichireme, Polysyllogism, Sorites, & Dilemma
 1. To explain the reasoning mechanism of an inductive argument
 To see the importance of the inductive method in the Empirical Sciences

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 MidtermExamination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

10 days
(20 hrs) 
Course Content
FINAL TERM:
FALLACIES &
SYMBOLIC LOGIC 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. FALLACIES
 II. SYMBOLIC PROPOSITION LOGIC: TRUTHFUCNTIONAL ANALYSIS
 III. PARADOXES OF MATERIAL IMPLICATION
 IV. SHORTCUT TRUTH TABLE METHOD & FORKING
 V. PROOFS OF VALIDITY
 VI. SYMBOLIC PREDICATE LOGIC: QUANTIES AND QUANTIFIERS

 1. To explain the erroneous process of thinking in the fallacies
 2. To identify and understand the types of formal fallacies
 3. To identify and understand the different types of informal fallacies
 1. To explain the nature of symbolic propositional logic
 2. To discuss propositions & truthvalues
 3. To identify & understand the different Basic Logical Operators, their truth functions, and how they can be analyzed through truth tables
To understand the paradoxes in the nature of material implication
To analyze the truth function of propositions through the shortcut truth table method & forking
 1. To identify & explain the different rules of replacement
 2. To indentify & explain the different rules of inference
 3. To construct formal proofs through the different rules
 1. To explain the rationale behind predicate logic
 2. To discuss the theory of quantification
 3. To discuss the quantifiers and connectives
 4. To construct formula

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 Final Examination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

11 days
(22 hrs) 
References
There will be no textbook for this course; required readings will be provided as the course progresses. However, students are especially recommended to read the following introductory books:
 Irving Copi. Introduction to Logic. Macmillan,1969.
 I. M. Copi and Carl Cohen. Introduction to Logic. New York: Prentice Hall, 2001 (11th edition).
 Andrew H. Bachhuber. Introduction to Logic. New York: Meredith Publishing Company, 1957.
 Maria Imelda Pastrama NaborNery. Logic with Ethics and Value Education. Ed. by Rtn. Jose Cruz Nery, Sr.. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.
 I.M. Copi. Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
You can also refer to the following online materials:
http://www.philosophy.lander.edu/logic/,
http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mleldrid/logic/,
Reviewed by:
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/courses/log/loghome.htm
http://www.cs.odu.edu/~toida/nerzic/content/web_course.html
Prepared by:
_______________________________
Subject Instructor
Approved by:
__________________________
College Dean
Scientific Reasoning and Critical Thinking
Course Identification
 Subject Code: Philosophy 11
 Course Title: Scientific Reasoning and Critical Thinking
 Course Description:
This course is specifically an outlined study of the basic principles of philosophy and its branches. It also covers an introduction to formal logic to develop the students skills in forming clear and systematic though, conducting inquiries and carrying our abstract and critical thinking (CSU General Catalogue, Revised 20082009)
 Number of Units: 3
 Number of Hours: 54
 Course Requirements:
Quizzes – – – 30%
Class Standing – – – 20%
Recitation – 5%
Assignments – 5%
Project – 10%
Periodic Test – – – 50%
Total – – – 100%
 Course Objectives:
At the end of the semester, the students must be able to:
 Distinguish a good argument from a bad argument.
 Understand the central ideas and topics studied in Traditional and Symbolic Logic
 Construct their own arguments, in traditional language and in symbolic language.
 Develop philosophical and critical thinking.
Course Content
PRELIMS: INTRODUCTION 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. BASIC CONCEPTS
 II. LOGIC & LANGUAGE
 III. STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS

 1. To orient the students with the basics of concepts, such as:
 Meaning of Philosophy
 Branches of Philosophy
 Definition of Logic
 Core of Logic
 Types of Logic
 Basic Technical Terms
 2. To elaborate on the idea of Logic as an Organon towards truth
 1. To distinguish, through explanation and examples, the forms and functions of language.
 2. To discuss the nature of emotive words
 3. To discuss Disagreements & their types
 1. To identify and understand the parts of an argument
 2. To diagram an argument
 3. To distinguish an argument from a nonargument
 4. To distinguish, through explanation and examples, a deductive argument from an inductive argument
 5. To discuss the concepts of Truth, Validity, and Soundness

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 Preliminary Examination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

6 days
(12 hrs) 
Course Content
MIDTERMS:
ARISTOTELIAN CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISTIC LOGIC 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. CATEGORICAL TERM
 II. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION
 III. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
 IV. FORMS OF IMMEDIATE INFERENCE
 V. OTHER FORMS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE
 VI. Inductive Arguments & the Scientific Method

 1. To define and understand the categorical term
 2. To discuss the “comprehension” and “extension” of a term
 3. To analyze a term according to its Quantity & Distribution
 4. Identify the kinds of terms (Univocal, Equivocal, & Analogous)
 1. To explain the Categorical Proposition & its standard forms
 2. To analyze a Categorical Proposition according to its quality, quantity, & distribution
 3. To analyze a Categorical Proposition using the Venn Diagram
 1. To understand the Categorical Syllogism through the syllogistic rules
 2. To analyze the validity of the “logical form” of a Categorical Syllogism through its “mood” and “figure”
 3. To analyze a Categorical Syllogism using a Venn Diagram
 1. To identify and distinguish, through explanation and examples, an immediate from a mediate inference.
 2. To discuss the Traditional Square of Opposition
 3. To identify and understand the different forms of “Eduction” (conversion, obversion, contraposition, & inversion)
 1. To discuss and cite examples of the different types of Hypothetical Syllogism
 2. To indentify and explain the special mediate inference, such as Enthymemes, Epichireme, Polysyllogism, Sorites, & Dilemma
 1. To explain the reasoning mechanism of an inductive argument
 To see the importance of the inductive method in the Empirical Sciences

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 MidtermExamination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

10 days
(20 hrs) 
Course Content
FINAL TERM:
FALLACIES &
SYMBOLIC LOGIC 
Specific Objectives 
Instructional Materials Used 
Strategies and Activities 
Evaluation 
Time
Allotment 
 I. FALLACIES
 II. SYMBOLIC PROPOSITION LOGIC: TRUTHFUCNTIONAL ANALYSIS
 III. PARADOXES OF MATERIAL IMPLICATION
 IV. SHORTCUT TRUTH TABLE METHOD & FORKING
 V. PROOFS OF VALIDITY
 VI. SYMBOLIC PREDICATE LOGIC: QUANTIES AND QUANTIFIERS

 1. To explain the erroneous process of thinking in the fallacies
 2. To identify and understand the types of formal fallacies
 3. To identify and understand the different types of informal fallacies
 1. To explain the nature of symbolic propositional logic
 2. To discuss propositions & truthvalues
 3. To identify & understand the different Basic Logical Operators, their truth functions, and how they can be analyzed through truth tables
To understand the paradoxes in the nature of material implication
To analyze the truth function of propositions through the shortcut truth table method & forking
 1. To identify & explain the different rules of replacement
 2. To indentify & explain the different rules of inference
 3. To construct formal proofs through the different rules
 1. To explain the rationale behind predicate logic
 2. To discuss the theory of quantification
 3. To discuss the quantifiers and connectives
 4. To construct formula

 Transparencies with OHP
 Handouts


 Final Examination
 Quizzes
 Seatwork
 Assignments
 Report

11 days
(22 hrs) 
References
There will be no textbook for this course; required readings will be provided as the course progresses. However, students are especially recommended to read the following introductory books:
 Irving Copi. Introduction to Logic. Macmillan,1969.
 I. M. Copi and Carl Cohen. Introduction to Logic. New York: Prentice Hall, 2001 (11th edition).
 Andrew H. Bachhuber. Introduction to Logic. New York: Meredith Publishing Company, 1957.
 Maria Imelda Pastrama NaborNery. Logic with Ethics and Value Education. Ed. by Rtn. Jose Cruz Nery, Sr.. Manila: Katha Publishing Co., Inc.
 I.M. Copi. Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
You can also refer to the following online materials:
http://www.philosophy.lander.edu/logic/,
http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mleldrid/logic/,
w.earlham.edu/~peters/courses/log/loghome.htm
http://www.cs.odu.edu/~toida/nerzic/content/web_course.html